A Walk through the Nave of the Crystal Palace 1854

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A Walk through the Nave of the Crystal Palace 1854

Postby tulse hill terry » 5 Dec 2007 04:20

This is still a sort of illustrated guide to the Crystal Palace building and grounds, but I thought it might be an idea to start with the background to why the Palace came to the highest point in South London.

I have started a seperate thread on the actual building of the Crystal Palace, starting with a guide to the Hyde Park version of 1851 on the following thread - link below.

http://forum.sydenham.org.uk/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=4783

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Panoramic view from the proposed site of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham."

SOURCE: Illustrated London News June 5 1852

"The Proposed site of the Crystal Palace."

"About half-way between the Sydenham and Anerley stations, on the right of the railway line to Croydon, glimpses of the picturesque chimneys of an Elizabethan may be caught just peeping over an intervening screen of trees. this is Penge - Place. It was rebuilt by Blore on the foundation of an ancient mansion, and is soon to be removed to afford a site for the Crystal Palace. Thus, for beauty of scenery and perfect retirement, combined with easy access from London, it is impossible to imagine a more fortunate station. The park, pleasure - grounds, and pasture - fields contain 280 acres, lying on a gentle slope, varied by round barbed spurs, on one of which, a sort of promontory, the mansion now stands. The park and pstures are adorned with clumps of ornamental timber, and surrounded by a thick belt of plantations which completely seperate it from the road and from adjoining properties. One considerable part of this plantation, intersected by winding paths, is formed of magnificent hollies and other evergreens, which must afford a most delightful winter's walk. The situation, sloping down into a valley and hedged in by thick plantations, affords the most perfect solitude; not a sound, not an object within view, betrays the close vicinity of a great city. The blackbirds and thrushes sing away in harmonious rivalry, and the rabbits dashing through the brushwood and wobbling along the fields complete the idea of a remote rural district, only disturbed by the occasional thunder of a train dashing along the valley below, unseen, but marked by a following train of vapour. the village in the valley is hidden, all but the tapering spire of the church, by the roll of the ground and intervening clumps of trees; but rising beyond, the Surrey hills, almost covered with wood, spread out in a vast panorama, until they are bounded by the horizon.

With the exception of the belt of plantations which surrounds this future park of the million, very little has been done by art to improve and develop the beauties of what Sir Joseph paxton has called "the most beautiful spot in the world for the Crystal Palace."

At present there is no water to complete the picture as the eye travels down the green slopes before rising to take in the delicious prospect afforded by the opposite wooded vales, doted here and there with villas. But from the fall of the ground it will be easy to construct a small lake, or a series of basins for waterfalls. If possible, we should like to have a series of trout preserves, like those at the Wolf's Den, near Heidelberg.

It is indeed delightful to contemplate that this park, from its position, never can be intruded upon by building speculation, but can command solitude for centuries to come. When the Crystal Palace, revived with all the triumphs of taste, and skill that are in contemplation, is removed to this park; when four termini of railways are close adjoining the silent highway of the Thames, and are ready to convey all classes to the garden wilderness for the cost of an omnibus fare - into the midst of flowers and rare shrubs in full bloom in winter, and fountains and shady walks in summer, away from the smoke and the din of London, where all will be framed with the view of purging and instructing by the eye and the ear, and every debasing habit and association will be excluded - a new era in the public amusements will have commenced. The day of pot-house gardens, and the pot-and-pipe selfishness of husbands, will soon pass away.

Every year the increase in the size of London and dearness of rent render it more essential that the masses should have the means of healthful recreation, fresh air, and amusement, without the temptation of intoxicating liquors to refresh them after their toils. Already the improvements in our parks and public gardens have done much to improve the character of the working people in London. But the winter is no time for walks in the park, or excursions to Kew or Hampton Court. The Crystal Palace gets over this difficulty; and it is satisfactory to find that for all the inhabitants of the east end of London - of Greenwich and Deptford, of Vauxhall, Bermondsey, and the suburbs on the river - the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, with the railway running into it, will be nearer and cheaper than if it had been planted in Hyde Park; while a park fitted for every healthful game will be added to its other attractions."

-Illustrated London News June 5 1852



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Maps from the 1854 [left] and 1858 [right] guides to the Crystal Palace.

They give some idea of the increase of development and transport links in just the first four years of the Crystal Palace.





THE NAVE.

Quitting the wing, to which the visitor was brought [from the railway station], he turns into the body of the Palace, and the first object that attracts attention is a fountain of toilet vinegar, erected by Mr. E. Rimmel, from designs furnished by Mr. John Thomas.


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Keeping close to this, the south end of the Palace, we proceed towards the centre of the nave, and passing through the opening in the ornamental screen which stretches across the nave, a fine view is gained of the whole interior of the building.


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Delamotte 1854

In the fore-ground is Osler’s crystal fountain, which adorned the Palace at Hyde Park, but here elevated in its proportions and improved. It is surrounded by a sheet of water at each end of which float the gigantic leaves of the Victoria Regia, the intermediate space occupied by various aquatic plants; several species of the Nymphoea Devoniana, the Nelumbium speciosum or sacred bean of the Pythagoreans, &c.

On either side of the nave the plants of almost every clime wave their foliage, forming a mass of cool pleasant colour, admirably harmonizing with the surrounding tints, and also acting as a most effective background to relieve the white statues, which are picturesquely grouped along the nave; at the back of these are the facades of the various Industrial and Fine Arts Courts, whose bright colouring gives additional brilliancy to the interior, whilst the aerial blue tint of the arched roof above considerably increases the effect of the whole composition.

Let the visitor now proceed up the building until he arrives at the central transept, at which point the will be enabled to judge of the vastness of the hall in the midst of which he stands, and the whole structure of which the transept forms so noble and conspicuous a part.

-General Guide to the Crystal Palace
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Postby tulse hill terry » 5 Dec 2007 04:23

INTRODUCTION TO THE FINE ARTS COURTS.

One of the most important objects of the Crystal Palace is to teach a great practical lesson in art. Specimens of the various phases through which the arts of Architecture and Sculpture have passed, are here collected, commencing from the earliest known period down to modern times, or from the remote ages of Egyptian civilization to the sixteenth century after Christ -- a period of more than three thousand years.

Perhaps no subject, with the exception of the literature of departed nations, affords more interest to the mind of man, than these visible proofs of the different states of society throughout the world’s history; and nothing better aids us in realizing the people and customs of the past, than the wonderful monuments happily preserved from the destructive hand of Time, and now restored to something of their original splendour by the patient and laborious researches of modern times; and, we may add, (not without some pride) by the enterprising liberality of Englishmen.

Nor is it the least extraordinary fact, in this view of progress, that the building itself, which contains these valuable monuments of past ages, is essentially different from every preceding style, uniting perfect strength with aerial lightness, and as easy of erection as it is capable of endurance. The combination of glass and iron has produced the original and beautiful result of which the Crystal Palace is the most Brilliant example, suggesting to the mind a new and wonderful power of extension beyond anything the mind of the artist has yet devised. Thus then, beneath one roof, may the visitor trace the course of art from centuries long anterior to Christianity, down to the very moment in which he lives, and obtain by this means an idea of the successive states of civilization which from time to time have arisen in the world, flourishing for a greater or less period, until overturned by the aggressions of barbarians, or the no less destructive agency of a sensual and degraded luxury. Sculpture, the sister of architecture, has also been worthily illustrated within our walls. Vainly, in any part of the world, will be sought a similar collection, by means of which the progress of that beautiful art can be regularly traced.

The statues will generally be found in the Architectural Courts of the countries to which they belong, so that the eye may track the intellectual stream as it flows on, now rising to the highest point of beauty, and now sinking to the lowest depths of degradation. The visitor is invited to proceed with us on this world-wide tour of inspection, but to bear also in mind that our present task is to show him how to see the building itself, and not to describe its contents, except by briefly pointing out the most remarkable objects that encounter him on the way. For detailed and valuable information the visitor is referred to the excellent Handbooks of the respective Courts, all of which describe with minuteness not only their contents, by every needful circumstance in connexion with their history. The point from which we start is the central transept. Proceeding northwards, up the nave, the visitor turns immediately to the left and finds himself in front of The Egyptian Court.
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Postby tulse hill terry » 5 Dec 2007 04:44

THE EGYPTIAN COURT

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Egyptian Court from the Nave - Negretti & Zambra stereoview.

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Groundplan from "Handbook to Egyptian Hall, Crystal Palace 1854."

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Facade towards the Nave. - Delamotte - British Library

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Advancing up the avenue of lions, cast from a pair brought from Egypt by Lord Prudhoe (the present Duke of Northumberland), we have before us the outer walls and columns of a temple, not taken from any one particular structure, but composed from various sources, to illustrate Egyptian columns and capitals during the Ptolemaic period, somewhere about 300 years B.C.

On the walls are coloured sunk-reliefs showing a king making offerings or receiving gifts from the gods. The capitals or heads of the columns are palm and lotus-leaved; some showing the papyrus in its various stages of development, from the simple bud to the full-blown flower.

The representation of the palm and the papyrus occurs frequently in Egyptian architecture; the leaves of the latter, it will be remembered, were made into paper, and its flowers were specially used as offerings in the temples.

On the frieze above the columns is a hieroglyphic inscription stating that “in the seventeenth year of the reign of Victoria, the ruler of the waves, this Palace was erected and furnished with a thousand statues, a thousand plants, &c., like as a book for the use of the men of all countries.”

This inscription is repeated, with some slight additions, on the frieze of the interior of the Court.

On the cornice of both the inside and outside of the Court, are the names of Her Majesty and Prince Albert, engraved in hieroglyphic characters, and also winged globes, the symbolic protecting deity of doorways.


OUTER COURT

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Outer Court - Negretti & Zambra stereoview.

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Outer Court - Negretti & Zambra Carte de visite.



Entering by the central doorway, on the lintels and sides of which are inserted the different titles of King Ptolemy in hieroglyphics, we find ourselves in the exterior court of a temple in which the multitude assembled; the decorations of the walls are similar to those we saw outside, and it must be borne in mind that the colouring is taken from actual remains in Egypt.

On the wall to the left is a large picture copied from the great Temple of Rameses III. or Rameses Mai Amun, at Medinet Haboo [Medinet Habu] near Thebes, showing the counting of the hands of the slain before the king who is in his chariot; . . . .


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. . . . . on the right hand side of the Court is a representation of a battle scene, with the Egyptians storming a fortress.


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Russell & Sons Postcard Ca. 1900 of the display of Robert Hays Collection in 1870.
Originally uploaded to this forum by Falkor - viewtopic.php?f=10&t=1509

8th October 1870 : A collection of Egyptian antiquities, made in Egypt, and collected by the late M. Robert Hay was open to the public. Several specimens of mummies, bronze, stone, wooden and terracotta objects of worship, amulets, papyri, vases and furniture. Al were purchased 40-50 years previously. There were 1,300 objects on display.

"The antiquities Hay had collected while in Egypt fared somewhat better. After his death, the British Museum purchased 529 items from his estate for £1000. The remaining objects in Hay's collection were placed on public display and then sold to a Boston banker and collector whose son later bequeathed them to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, where they formed the basis of that museum's Egyptological collection."

http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/2 ... rt.hay.htm


A descriptive guide to the Hay collection of Egyptian antiquities now on view in the Crystal Palace: With notes, historical and illustrative
Author Robert Hay
Editor William Ricketts Cooper
Publisher R.K. Burt & Co.
Length 40 pages





Turning to the left, after examining the eight gigantic figures of Rameses the Great forming the façade of another temple . . . . .


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Facade of Hall of Columns - Delamotte - English Heritage/LDA/Crystal Palace Foundation

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COURT OF AMUNOPH

. . . . we enter the colonnade of an early period, its date being about 1300 B.C. The columns represent eight stems and buds of the papyrus bound together, and are cast from a black granite column bearing the name of Amunoph, now in the British Museum.


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Court of Amunothph - postcard by Photochrom ca 1920's

ROCK TOMB FROM BENI HASSAN

Passing on we find ourselves in a dark tomb copied from one at Beni Hassan. It is the earliest piece of architecture in the Crystal Palace, it’s date being about 1660, B.C. The original tomb is cut in the solid chain of rocks that forms a boundary on the east of the Nile, separating the sandy desert from the fertile valley of the river.

Although architectural remains exist in Egypt of a much earlier date than this tomb, it still possesses great value to us, for it may be considered as exhibiting the first order of Egyptian columns, which was employed in constructing buildings at as remote a period as two thousand years before Christ; this fluted column in another respect claims our attention, for there can be but little doubt that it supplied the Greeks with the model of their early Doric.


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Entrance from Nave into Court of Amunoph, the Tomb of Beni Hassan and beyond into the Egyptian Museum - Delamotte - British Library

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INNER COURT

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Inner Court, looking north - Negretti & Zambra stereoview

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Inner Court, looking south.





EGYPTIAN MUSEUM

Passing out [from the Tomb of Beni Hassan] we behold, in front of us [across the Inner Court], a beautiful colonnade, from the island of Philae, and of the same period as the Egyptian wall which we first saw fronting the nave.


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Outside of the Egyptian Museum, looking south.


Within this Court [Egyptian Museum] we cannot fail to remark the scattered statues, especially the Egyptian Antonius, executed during the Roman rule, the life-like development of whose limbs, representing, as it no doubt does, the Egyptian type, is sufficient to convince us that when Egyptian art was not tied down by the hierarchical yoke, it was capable of producing works of truth and merit.

Amidst the statues will be found two circular-headed stones - copies of the celebrated Rosetta stone (so called from having been found at the little town of Rosetta, near Alexandria) from which Dr. Young and Champollion obtained a key to the deciphering of hieroglyphics.

The stone is engraved in three characters : Hieroglyphics, Enchorial - the writing of the country - and Greek; the inscription is an address from the priests to the Greek King of Egypt, Ptomely V., in which the sovereign’s praises are set forth, and orders are given to set up a statue of the king, together with the address, in every temple. The date of this interesting remnant of Egyptian manners and customs is about 200 years before the Christian era.


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Inside of the Egyptian Museum, looking north. - Delamotte ca. 1854 - British Library

TOMB OF ABOO SIMBEL


Further on - in a recess, is the model of the temple of Aboo Simbel, cut in the side of a rock, in Nubia. The sitting figures represent Rameses the Great, and the smaller ones around, his mother, wife, and daughter.

The original tomb is ten times as large as the present model. Some notion of the stupendous magnitude of these Egyptian remains may be formed by observing the small figure standing on the tomb, which shows the relative height of an ordinary living man.


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Model of Tomb of Aboo Simbel - Albert Talbot - Crystal Palace Museum

HALL OF KARNAC COLUMNS

Turning from this recess, and after looking at the beautiful lotus columns to the left, surmounted by the cow-eared Goddess of Love of the Egyptians, and having examined the two large pictures on the walls of the temple - one of which represents a king slaying his enemies with the aid of the god Ammon Ra, and the other a feat of arms of the same king - we direct our attention to the columns before us, which are reduced models of a portion of the celebrated Temple of Karnac at Thebes.


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Hall of Karnac Columns

This temple, was, perhaps. One of the largest and most interesting in Egypt; the principal portions said to have been erected by Rameses II. about 1170 B.C.

It seems to have been a fashion with the Theban kings to make additions to this temple during their respective reigns; and, as each monarch was anxious to outvie his predecessor, the size of the fabric threatened to become unbounded. Temples and tombs were the grand extravagance of the Egyptian kings. The sums that modern rulers devote to palaces which add to their splendour whilst living, were given by the remote princes of whom we speak, and who regarded life as only a fleet passage towards eternity, for the construction of enduring homes when life should have passed away. Inasmuch as, if the career of an Egyptian king proved irreligious or oppressive, the priests and people could deny him sepulture in his own tomb, it is not unlikely that many Egyptian kings lavished large sums upon temples, in order to conciliate the priestly favour, and to secure for their embalmed bodies the much-prized sanctuary. It is to be observed, however, with respect to the names and inscriptions found on Egyptian monuments, that they are by no means always to be taken as an authentic account of the illustrious remains within. Some of the Egyptian kings have been proved guilty of erasing from tombs the names of their predecessors, and of substituting their own; an unwarrantable and startling deception that has proved very awkward and embarrassing to Egyptian antiquaries.

The portion of Karnac here modelled is taken from the Hall of Columns, commenced by Osirei the First, and completed by his son, Rameses the Great - a most illustrious monarch, who flourished during the Twelth century before Christ, whose deeds are frequently recorded, and whose statue is found in may parts of Egypt.

Before entering the temple we stay to notice the representations of animals and birds on the frieze above the columns, which is the dedication of the temple to the gods.

Entering between the columns, on the lower part of which is the name of Rameses the Great, and, in the middle, a representation of the three principal divinities of Thebes receiving offerings from King Osirei;- and, after thoroughly examining this interesting restoration, we return again into the outer court.



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Entrance from main transept into Tomb of Beni Hassan and then the Hall of Karnac Columns and beyond.- Negretti & Zambra stereoview


Regaining the nave, a few steps, directed to the left, bring us to the Greek Court.


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Outer Court from the Greek Vestibule. Negretti and Zambra Stereoview.

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Antwerp Zoo. During the 19th century expansion several 'exotic style' buildings were constructed to house the animals. One of the most remarkable buildings is the 1856 Egyptian temple which currently houses the giraffes.It was modeled after the 1854 'Egyptian Court' at the Crystal Palace in London. The hieroglyphs symbolize the relationship between the Royal Society of Zoology and the City of Antwerp.
http://www.aviewoncities.com/antwerp/zoo.htm


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Postby tulse hill terry » 5 Dec 2007 05:22

THE GREEK COURT

We enter the court through the central opening. This portico represents part of a Greek agora, or forum, which was used as a market, and also for public festivals, for political and other assemblies.


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Greek Court from the Nave - Day & Son Portfolio

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Around the frieze in this central division are the names of the poets, artists, philosophers of Greece, and of their most celebrated patrons, the list commencing immediately above the place of entrance, with old blind Homer, and finishing with Anthemius the architect of Saint Sophia at Constantinople. The names, it will be remarked are inserted in the Greek characters of the period at which the various people lived. The monograms within the chaplets on the frieze are formed of the initial letters of the muses, the Graces, the Good and the Wise; on the walls are also pictures representing the Olympian Gods and Marriage of Peleus and Thetis, the Judgement of Paris, Destruction of Ilium, and escape of Aeneas and Anchises, Hades and the Argonautic expedition.

The colouring of this court, with its blue, red and yellow surfaces, blazoned with gold, produces an excellent effect. It is the object of the decorators to give to the whole of the architectural specimens in the Crystal Palace, those colours which there is reason to know, or to believe, they originally possessed; to restore them, in fact, as far as possible to their pristine state, in order that the imagination of the spectator may be safely conducted back in contemplation to the artistic characteristics of distant and distinctive ages.


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In this court are arranged sculptures and models of temples. Amongst the former will be recognised many of the finest statues and groups of the Greek school, the Laocoon (16); the Farnese Juno (6); the well known Disco bolus (4) from the Vatican; the Ariadne, also from the Vatican (27); the Sleeping, or Barberini faun (19); and, in the centre, the unrivalled Venus of Melos (1).* We make our way round this court, beginning at the right hand.

After examining the collection, we pass between the columns into the small side court, (next to Egypt), answering to a stoa of the Agora. Around the frieze are found the names of the great men of the Greek colonies, arranged in chronological order.


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Greek Vestibule, between Egyptian and Greek Courts. Delamotte 1859

The visitor has here an opportunity of contrasting the architecture and sculpture of the Egyptians with those of the Greeks.

On one side of him is an Egyptian wall inclining inwards, with its angular pictorial decorations, and the passive colossal figures guarding the entrances. On the other side are beautiful columns and bold cornice of the Greek Doric, surrounded by statues characterised by beauty of form and refined idealized expression.

In this division will also be found the busts of the Greek Poets, arranged in chronological order, commencing on the right-hand side from the nave; these form a portion of the Portrait Gallery of the Crystal Place.

Making our way through the opening in the back, opposite the nave, we enter a covered atrium, commonly attached to the portion of the agora here reproduced. The massive antae, or square pillars, and the panelled ceiling -- the form of the latter adopted from the Temple of Apollo at Bassae in Arcadia -- give the visitor another specimen of Greek architecture.


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Covered Atrium looking north towards the Roman Court- Delamotte ca 1854 - British Library

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Covered Atrium looking south towards the Egyptian Court

We proceed, to the right, down this atrium, occasionally stepping out to examine the sculpture arranged in the gallery, and the restored and coloured frieze of the Parthenon of Athens, which extends its length along the wall. The coloured portion has been executed under the direction of Mr. Owen Jones, the golden hair and the several tints being founded on authentic examples which still exist on analogous remains of ancient Greek art. This frieze represents the anathematic procession to the temple of Athene Polias, which formed part of the display at this greatest of the Athenian festivals, and took place every fourth year

Dividing the frieze, is one of the most interesting objects in the Crystal Palace, a model of the western front of the Parthenon itself, about one-fourth the size of the original structure. This is the largest model that has ever been constructed of this beautiful temple, and, being coloured from actual remains and legitimate deductions, it possesses the great charm of a veritable copy. The scale is sufficiently large to give a complete idea of the original. This admirable model is due to the intelligent and successful researches prosecuted in Athens by Mr. Penrose, whose labours have thrown so much new light upon the refinements practised by the Greeks in architecture. Mr. Penrose has himself directed the construction of the model.


Francis Penrose 1817 - 1903 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Penrose

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Looking South to the Egyptian Court

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Looking North. Carte de Visite Negretti & Zambra

In this gallery are ranged statues and groups, including the celebrated Niobe group, from Florence (187 to 187L, inclusive). The subject of the punishment of Niobe’s family by the gods was frequently treated by Greek artists; and certainly the group before us is one of the most beautiful examples of Greek sculptural art. It is supposed that the portion of the group at Florence occupied the pediment of the temple of Apollo Sosianus at Rome. The Niobe group belongs to one of the brightest periods.


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Casts from those most beautiful and wonderful remains of ancient art, the colossal figures from the pediment of the Parthenon at Athens, are also here (185 to 185B). The originals, brought over to England by Lord Elgin in 1801-2, are in the British Museum, and the nation is indebted for the acquisition to the painter Haydon, who was the first British artist to recognise the value, and appreciate the beauty of these mutilated but inimitable monuments of art at the highest period of its glory. They belong to the Phidian school, and are characterized by simple grandeur, great repose in the attitudes, and a deep study of nature in their forms. The Theseus more particularly displays a marvellous study of nature in their forms.

The visitor will not fail to be astonished, no less by the number than by the charming effect of these works which have come down to our time, and which will descend to the latest posterity as models of excellence.


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Vestibule between the Greek and Roman Courts.

Proceeding until we arrive at the junction of the Greek and Roman Courts, we turn into the right hand division of the outer court; round the frieze of which are the names of statesmen and warriors of Athens, the Peloponnesus and Attica. The busts ranged on either side are portraits of the Greek philosophers, orators, generals and statesmen, arranged in chronological order, commencing at the entrance of the nave.

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*For a minute description of all the statues and other works of art in this Court, see the “Handbook to the Greek court.”

We walk through this court until we reach the nave; then turning to the left find ourselves facing The Roman Court
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Postby tulse hill terry » 5 Dec 2007 05:42

ROMAN COURT.

In the wall now before us we have a model of a portion of the outer wall of the Coliseum at Rome, pierced with arches and ornamented with Tuscan columns.

The Coliseum is one of the most wonderful structures in the world, and the Pyramids of Egypt alone can be compared with it in point of size. It is elliptical in form, and consisted outwardly of four stories. In the centre of the interior was the arena or scene of action, around which the seats for spectators rose, tier above tier. The enormous range was capable of seating 87,000 persons. Vespasian and Titus erected this amphitheatre, and the work commenced about A.D. 79. In this vast and splendidly decorated building, the ancient Romans assembled to witness chariot-races, naval engagements, combats of wild animals, and other exciting sports.



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Exterior of the Roman Court from the nave. Day & Son Portfolio.

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Entering the Roman court through the central arch way we come into an apartment whose walls are coloured in imitation of the porphyry, malachite, and rare marbles with which the Roman people loved to adorn their houses.

This style of decoration appears to have been introduced a little before the Christian era, and so lavish were the roman in supplying ornament for their homes, that the emperor Augustus, dreading the result of the extravagance, endeavoured by his personal moderation to put a stop to the reckless expenditure: although, it is recorded, that the lofty exemplar was set up for imitation in vain.



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South east corner of the Roman Court - Delamotte 1854

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South west corner of the Roman Court.

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Following the same plan as in the Greek Court, we proceed round, examining the sculptures and models.

Amongst the former will be noticed the statue of Drusus from Naples (222); the beautiful Venus Aphrodite from the capitol, Rome (226); the Venus Genitrix from the Louvre (228); the fine statue of a musician, or female performer on the lyre, from the Louvre (230); the Marine Venus (233); the Venus of Arles (237); the Venus Callipygos from Naples (238); and the Bacchus from the Louvre (241).*

Around the court are placed the portrait busts of the most celebrated kings and emperors of Rome, arranged chronologically, commencing, on the right hand side of the entrance, with Numa Pompilius (34), and terminating with Constantinus Chlourus (73).+

The centre of the Roman Court is occupied not with statues as in Greece, but with models of the great structures which formed the lasting glory of the "Eternal city."

On the one hand is the Forum, the spot in which the great popular assmblies and meetings tool place, containing, and surrounded by, the most important of the public buildings. This is modelled as it now exists.


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Model of the Roman Forum. Negretti &Zambra Stereoview Ca. 1860's

On the other hand are the Coloseum and the Pantheon, not in their ruined state, but as they originally stood. The former was an amphitheatre, in which the Romans assembled to witness the combats of men and animals, in which they delighted. almost every roman town had its amphitheatre, but this is the largest of all. it could contain 87,000 spectators, and was built by Vespasian and Titus, in the year 79, after the return from the conquest of Palestine and the destruction of Jerusalem. The scale of this model is 1/8 of an inch to a foot.

The other model is of the Pantheon, or Temple of all the gods, one of the sublimest structures in the world. It is an immense circular edifice, 140 feet diameter inside, and the same height from the floor to the top of the dome. teh portico was erected by a certain Vipsanius agrippa, twenty-five years before Christ. the main building is probably much later. It has been a Christian Church since A.D. 608, and Raffaelle, the painter, is buried in it.

-Crystal Palace Penny Guide 1864


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Pantheon and Colosseum in the Roman Court Source Russell & Sons postcard ca 1900. From this thread http://forum.sydenham.org.uk/viewtopic.php?t=4145

These models and the one of the Acropolis were supplied by August Emil Braun 1809 - 1856.

Having completed our survey, we enter the arched vestibule, and the three others adjacent, are founded, in respect of their decorations and paintings, on examples still extant in the ancient baths of Rome.

The bath, as is well known, was indispensable to the Romans, and in the days of their “decadence,” when they had sunk from glorious conquerors and mighty generals into mere indolent slaves of luxury, the warm bath was used to excess. It is said that it was resorted to as often as seven or eight times a day, and even used immediately after a meal, to assist the digestive organs, and to enable the bather to enjoy, with as little delay as possible, another luxurious repast.




We proceed through these vestibules, as in the Greek Court, studying the objects of art, and occasionally stepping out to notice the continuation of the Parthenon frieze on the wall at the back, and the sculptures ranged around. In the centre of the first vestibule is the Venus Genetrix (234); in the centre of the second vestibule, the Apollo Belvedere (252); and in the third, the Diana with the Deer (261),++ -three chef-d’oeuvres of sculpture, that give an idea of the highest state of art under Roman rule.

* These numbers refer to the Handbook of the Roman Court.
+ These to numbers refer to the Handbook to the Portrait Gallery.
++ Numbers of the Roman Handbook.



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Ornamental sculpture at the back of the Roman Court - Source Delamotte 1854

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We soon arrive at the sides of the Alhambra, when [facing north, and] turning to the right, we find ourselves in a Roman side court, which is surrounded by the busts of the most renowned Roman Generals, of Empresses and other women.


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Daguerrotype - Source ebay

Passing through this compartment, we once more make our way to the nave, and bring ourselves face to face with the gorgeous magnificence of The Alhambra Court.
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Postby Falkor » 5 Dec 2007 14:34

..
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Postby tulse hill terry » 5 Dec 2007 16:56

ALAHAMBRA COURT
The architectural sequence is now interrupted. We have arrived at one of those offshoots from a parent stem which flourished for a time, and then entirely disappeared; leaving examples of their art which either compel our wonder by the extraordinary novelty of the details, as in the case of Nineveh, or, as in the court now before us, excite our admiration to the highest pitch, by the splendour and richness of the decorations. The Saracenic or Moresque architecture sprang from the Byzantine, the common parent of all subsequent styles, and the legitimate successor to the Roman system. We shall immediately have occasion to speak more particularly of the parent root when we cross the nave and enter the Byzantine Court. Of the Moorish architecture which branched out from it, it will be sufficient to day here that the solid external structure was of plain, simple masonry; whilst the inside was literally covered, from end to end, with rich arabesque work in coloured stucco, and adorned with mosaic pavements, marble fountains, and sweet-smelling flowers.

The fortress-palace of the Alhambra,* of a portion of which this court is a reproduction, was built about the middle of the thirteenth century. It rises on a hill above the city of Granada (in the south of Spain), the capital of the Moorish kingdom of that name, which, for two hundred and fifty years, withstood the repeated attacks of the Christians, and was not finally reduced until 1492, be Ferdinand and Isabella. The Alhambra, under Moorish rule, was the scene of the luxurious pleasures of the monarch, and the stage upon which many fearful crimes were enacted. Within its brilliant courts, the king fell by the hand of the aspiring chief, who, in his turn, was cut down by the equally ambitious rival. Few spots can boast a more intimate association with the romantic than the Alhambra, until the Christians ejected the Moors from their splendid home, and the palace of the unbeliever became a Christian fortress.


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The part here reproduced is the far-famed Court of Lions and the Tribunal of Justice. The outside of these courts is covered with diaper work, consisting of inscriptions in Arabic character, of conventional representation of flowers and of flowing decoration, over which the eye wanders, delighted with the harmony of the colouring and the variety of the ornament.



Image

Entering through the central archway, we see before us the fountain supported by the lions that gave the name to the court; and, through the archway opposite, a portion of the stalactite roof of the Hall of the Abencerrages. Around and about us on every side highly ornamental surfaces attract and ravish the vision. We gaze on the delicate fretwork of the arches, on the exquisite pattern of the gorgeous illumination, we listen to the pleasant music of falling waters, and inhale the fragrant perfume of flowers, until, carried away by the force of imagination we live in an age of chivalry, and amidst the influences of oriental life. This court is 75 feet long, just two thirds the length of the original; the columns are as high as the columns of the Court of Lions itself, and the arches that spring from them are also of the actual size of the original arches. Over the columns is inscribed in Cufic characters “And there is no Conqueror but God.” Round the basin of the fountain is an Arabic poem, from which we take two specimens:--

“Oh thou who beholdest these Lions crouching – fear not!
Life is wanting to enable them to show their fury!”

Less, we must think, a needless caution to the intruder, than the poet’s allowed flattery to his brother artist. In the verse of Greece and modern Italy, we find the same heightened expression of admiration for the almost animating art of sculpture. The following passage is oriental in every letter:-

“Seest thou not how the water flows on the surface,
notwithstanding the current strives to oppose its progress.
Like a lover whose eyelids are pregnant with tears, an
Who suppresses them for fear of a tale-bearer.”

Through this brilliant court, the visitor will proceed or linger as his fascinated spirit directs. There are no statues to examine, for the religion of the Moors forbade the representation of living objects; in truth, the exquisitely wrought tracery on every side upon which the Moorish mind was thus forced to concentrate all its artistic power and skill is in itself sufficient exclusively to arrest and to enchain the attention. A curious infringement, however, of the Mahammoden law just now mentioned, which proscribes the representation of natural objects, is observable in the lions supporting the fountain, and in three paintings, which occupy a portion of the original ceilings in the Tribunal of Justice and the two alcoves adjoining. It is also to be remarked that, although the followers of Mahommed scrupulously avoid stepping upon a piece of paper lest the name of god should be written thereon, yet that name is found repeatedly upon the tile floor of the same tribunal. From these circumstances it would seem that the Mahommedans of the West were more lax in their observances than their brethren of the East, having in all probability imbibed some of the ideas and feelings of the Spanish Christians with whom they came into contact.

Passing through the archway opposite to that at which we entered, we find ourselves in a vestibule which in the Alhambra itself leads from the Court of Lions to the Tribunal of Justice. That is, however, only a portion of the original passage. The arches opening from the central to the right and left divisions of the vestibule are of the size of the originals, the patterns on the walls and ceilings being taken from other portions of the Alhambra

The visitor may now proceed through the left-hand arch into the division next the Roman Court.


Image
By Photchrom.

On the right of this division he will find a small room devoted to models, and specimens of the original casts of ornaments of the Alhambra, brought by Mr. Owen Jones from Spain, from which this court has been constructed.

Returning to the central division [Hall of Justice], he sees on his left, the Hall of the Abencerrages, already spoken of, and which, with its beautiful stalactite roof, is now in rapid course of completion. Proceeding onward we quit the Alhambra, and emerge into the north transept.
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Postby tulse hill terry » 5 Dec 2007 17:07

FOUNTAINS BY RAFFAELLE MONTI 1818 - 1881.

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Carte de Visite - Negretti & Zambra. Source: eBay

Passing the façade of the Alhambra Court, we arrive at the Fountains, which at this end of the Nave correspond to those of the south end, in position, and with respect to the aquatic plants which live in the water of the long basin.

The two fountains here are designed by Raffaelle Monti the sculptor.

The figures of Sirens, supporting the large shells, typify by their colour four races of men: the Caucasian, white ; the Nubian, black; the north American Indian, red; and the Australian, olive.

The smaller figures above these bear fruit indigenous to various soils.

The design of the Fountains is most appropriate, and the entire composition very artistic. The bronze colour of these statues and of many others, in the building, is produced by means of the electrotype process with signal success.


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Northern fountain. Delamotte ca. 1854. Source: ?

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Southern fountain. Delamotte ca. 1854. Source: V&A

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Southern fountain and Assyrian Court. Source: English heritage
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Postby Falkor » 5 Dec 2007 17:17

..
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Postby tulse hill terry » 5 Dec 2007 17:36

THE COLOSSAL EGYPTIAN FIGURES

Which are from the temple of Rameses the Great at Aboo Simbel; in Nubia. These immense seated statues towering to the roof of the transept afford us some adequate idea of the stupendous magnitude and passive grandeur which characterize the monuments of ancient Egyptian art. Their height is 65 feet.

It may be remembered that in the Egyptian Court we directed the attention of the visitor to a model of the temple at Aboo Simbel; on the façade of which were four statues of Rameses the Great. Two of these statues are here reproduced on the scale of the originals, the smaller figures around them representing the mother, wife, and daughter of the king.

The temple of Aboo Simbel, in Nubia is excavated from the rock, and was first discovered by Burckhardt, the traveler ; the accumulated sand of centuries, which then covered it, was removed by order of Belzoni, the first, with Captains irby and Mangles, to pass its long closed entrance. The interior was covered with paintings and hieroglyphics relating to Rameses the Great, and the date of the temple has been consequently placed at 1560 B.C.

The sphinxes which formed the avenue are cast from one preserved in the Louvre, the writing engraved on which presents us with a curious but not uncommon instance of a custom that prevailed amongst the Egyptian monarchs. On one side of the shoulder the name “Pthalomen Miotph” is written in hieroglyphics, and on the other shoulder is the name of Shishak I. The last name lived about 100 B.C, and the first nearly two hundred years before him. Other instances occur where the name of the original founder has been erased altogether, in order to make way for the name of some comparatively modern king.


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THE FIRE OF 30 DECEMBER 1866

This destroyed the whole of the Northern Transept which was never re-built.

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Passing these figures then for the moment, the visitor directs his attention to The Assyrian Court which faces him.
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Postby tulse hill terry » 5 Dec 2007 18:01

THE ASSYRIAN COURT.

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Assyrian Court. Source: English Heritage

This Court is larger than any other appropriated to the illustration of one phase of art. It is 120 feet wide, and has an elevation of 40 feet from the floor line.

Its chief interest, however, consists in fact of its illustrating a style of art of which no specimen has hitherto been presented in Europe, and which, indeed, until the last few years, lay unknown even in the country where its remains have been unexpectedly brought to light.

It is only ten years ago that M. Botta, the French Consul at Mossul, first discovered the existence of sculptural remains of the old Assyrian empire at Khorsabad: and since that time the palace, now known to have been erected about the year 720 B.C. by Sargon, the successor of Shalmaneser, has been mainly explored, as well as the palace of his son Sennacherib at Koyunjik, and that of Esarhaddon at Nimroud, besides other older palaces in the last-named locality

- General Guide


Paul Emile Botta 1802 - 1870 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul-%C3%89mile_Botta

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Ground plan from "Handbook to the Nineveh [Assyrian] Handbook 1854."

The Central Hall is in the centre with the four column bases and the Inner Chamber to the right.

The Handbook [without map] can be downloaded here: http://books.google.com/books?vid=0ZLRR ... reoILnwJkC

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Day & Son Portfolio. 1854

THE [East] EXTERIOR OR FACADE

The lower part of the facade is almost entirely copied from existing remains at Khorsabad and Kouyunjik, and is formed by winged human-headed bulls and gigantic human figures - casts, (with the exception of the two bulls flanking the centre entrance), from sculptures discovered among the former ruins, and now in the Museum of the Louvre, at Paris. The inscriptions on the bulls contain the name Sargon, the Assyrian King, mentioned in Isiah XX, by some supposed to be the same as Shalmanaser, who destroyed Samaria and carried away the ten tribes. The winged human-headed bulls, were, probably, emblematical figures connected with the religion of the Assyrians, representing the union of wisdom, power, and ubiquity - the three great attributes of the Deity - wisdom typified by the head of a man; power by the body of a bull; and ubiquity by the wings of a bird.

The colossal figure strangling a lion is supposed to represent the Assyrian Hercules - one of the great deities of the nation.

-Handbook to the Nineveh [Assyrian] Court


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Assyrian Court facade looking south. Delamotte ca. 1859. Source: English Heritage.

Above the basement rise columns whose capitals are in the form of kneeling bulls, back to back; they have been accurately modelled from those found at Persepolis. We have described in our preliminary remarks the reasons which authorise their introduction into an assyrian building. the battlements, in the form of steps or gradines, are a peculiar feature in assyrian architecture and are continually represented in the sculptures. the painted ornaments on the cornice are the honeysuckle, alternating with a tulip or some such flower, and the guilloche, both of pure assyrian origins, and the source of two of the most elegant architectural ornaments of the Greeks.

-Handbook to the Nineveh [Assyrian] Court


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South facade of the Assyrian Court. from a negative for a stereoview by Negretti & Zambra. Source Musee d'Orsay via http://www.nmr.fr

THE [South] EXTERIOR OR FACADE

On the external wall facing the transept are two bas-reliefs, casts from sculptures in the British Museum. That to the right on issuing from the entrance, is the eagle-headed figure, and to the left a group surrounded by a frame, copied from one in the Museum, and representing the king between two eagle-headed figures and two peculiar objects which have been called the sacred tree. Ths emblem occurs continually on Assyrian buildings and monuments. It has been supposed to have some reference to the tree of life, so universally recognised as a sacred and mysterious symbol in the religious sytems of the East; and Mr. Fergusson has conjectured that it may be identified with the "grove," or "groves" so frequently mentioned in the Bible as an object of idolatrous worship to the Jews.


The principal entrance to this hall, opening upon the nave and facing the fountain, is formed by a pair of human-headed bulls, seventeen feet high, modelled from those in the ruins of Nimrud.

-General Guide


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CENTRAL HALL

The ceiling has been restored by Mr. Fergusson. The casts which surround this hall have all been taken from sculptures discovered in the north-west palace at Nimrod, and now found in the British Museum.


James Fergusson 1808 - 1886 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Ferg ... chitect%29

INNER CHAMBER

Passing through the entrace at the north end of the hall just described, and between small winged figures placed one above the other, we enter the Inner Chamber. It's walls are also ornamented with casts from bas-reliefs from the north-west hall of the Palace of Nimrod and now in the British Museum.

-General Guide


[Apparently all you could smell was the ladies toilets behind!]

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Pitiable size, I rescued this from an email attachment.

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Facade of the Assyrian court after the fire of 1866 - from a negative for a Negretti & Zambra stereoview.
Source: Musee d' Orsay via http://www.rmn.fr/

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Carte de Visite by Negretti & Zambra ca. 1866. Source; eBay 2009

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A modern project to reproduce the Assyrian Palace at Nimrod, using 3D computer scanning.

http://www.factum-arte.com/eng/conserva ... efault.asp[/img]
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Postby tulse hill terry » 5 Dec 2007 18:13

Having crossed the building under the gallery, the visitor will find on his left the NORTH WING: the site appropriated for the extensive collection of Raw Produce, now forming under the hand of Professor Wilson.


Any ideas who Professor Wilson was, anyone?

EDIT: John Wilson - F.R.S.E [Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh] "CHAIR OF AGRICULTURE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH"

RAW PRODUCE AND AGRICULTURAL COLLECTION.

This collection is intended to show, by means of a series of industrial specimens, the natural resources of this and other countries; to teach, through the medium of the eye, the history of the various substances which the earth produces for the use of man; to point out whence and by what means they are obtained, and how they are made subservient to our wants and comforts. The collection has thus a twofold object: First, to display what is termed the raw produce of the world, comprising substances belonging to each of the three kingdoms of nature; and secondly, to exhibit the same produce, when converted by industry into the form of a highly-finished manufacture.

The collection consists of the three following principal divisions:

1. The Soil.
2. The Produce of the Soil.
3. The Economic and Technical Uses to which the Produce is applied.


[I dare anyone to post a picture of this!]

This area of the Palace was used for some of the first concerts inside the Palace, before the Orchestra in the Central transept was built.

Opposite to the colossal Aboo Simbel figures stood the bark of a Giant Sequoia, first shown at the Crystal Palace of New York in 1853. That building burned too, in 1858.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Crystal_Palace

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Delamotte ca 1859. Source: English Heritage


Here towering aloft under the arch of the transept, are two of the colossal portrait statues of Rameses the Great; two of the fourwhich have sat for the last 3,000 years against the cliff in front of the temple of Aboo Simbel, near the Second Cataract of the Nile. In front of them is an avaenue of Sphinxes and palms but how different is the scne before thse figures to that surveyed by the originals! Instead of the burning sands of Africa, they gaze on one of the most remarkable and characteristic objects of the New World - its size a worthy rival to the colossal grandeur of the pyramids and sphinxes of Egypt - the enormous trunk of the Wellingtonia gigantea of California.

WELLINGTONIA GIGANTIA

This gigantic brown bole, towering up from the green of the palms and bananas at its feet, is the actual bark of one of the famous grove of these prodigious trees which stands at the head of the River Sacrremento in California. It is a conifer, nearly allied to the cedar tribe. The height of the trunk as it stands is 116 feet. ; the branches commenced just where it now terminates ; and the total height was 363 feet. its diameter is 31 feet at the base, and 15 feet at 100 feet from the ground. The bark is 18 inches in thickness. Its age has been estimated, from the concentric rings of the wood of the trunk at 3,000 years. If this be accurate ( and it is difficult to dispute it ), it must have been a little plant when Samson was slaying the Philistines, and the Argive kings encamped round the walls of Troy. A view of the tree before it was felled, and of part of the grove, may be seen at the foot of the trunk.

- Crystal Palace Penny Guide 1864



After the fire of 1866, the ACQUARIUM was built here.

Leaving the north wing, and returning up the aisle, on the garden side of the Place, we come, following the order of the architectural arrangement, upon The Byzantine and Romanesque Court.
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Postby Falkor » 5 Dec 2007 18:16

..
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Postby tulse hill terry » 5 Dec 2007 18:54

The BYZANTINE COURT

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The architect/designer of the Byzantine Court, Matthew Digby Wyatt, own drawing of the facade of the Court. Source V&A via "Byzantium Rediscovered" J. B. Bullen 2003

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Day & Son Portfolio.

The arcade which forms the facade of the Byzantine court, is taken from the Cloisters of St. Mary Im Kapitol, an ancient church at Cologne, the date of the construction of which is ascribed to the eighth century, the cloisters not being completed , however until the close of the tenth.


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St. Mary in the Capitol was largely destroyed in World War II and reconstructed between 1956 -84.

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Ground Plan from "Handbook to the Byzantine Court. 1854."

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The North facade. Alhambra Court in the distance. Source: Delamotte

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North-West corner of the Byzantine Court. Source Thomas Nelson.

The entrance to the gallery at the back of the Byzantine Court is formed by the Chancel Arch of Tuam Cathedral In Ireland, built about the beginning or middle of the 13th century, a most interesting relic of art in the Sister Isle.


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St Mary's Cathedral, Tuam http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Mary%27 ... dral,_Tuam

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Same Corner while under construction. Source Delamotte

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West facade from the nave. London Stereoscopic Company 1856

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West facade from the nave. Delamotte ca. 1859

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West facade from the nave. Stereoview.

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Junction of West Facade and the German Mediaeval vestibule - Stereoview

Entering through the central arch of the west/nave facade, we pass through a cool cloister of the Romanesque school, a restored copy of a cloister at the church of Santa Maria in Capitolo [St Maria im Kapitol] at Cologne, an ancient edifice said to have been commenced about the year 700.


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Inside the cloister, looking North.

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Inside the cloister, looking South

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Carte de visite Negretti & Zambra

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Byzantine Court, looking north to the end of the cloister. Stereoview.

The black marble fountain in the centre is an exact copy of the one at Heisterbach on the Rhine.


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Source: Leporello Guide

On either side of the fountain in this Court, are placed the celebrated effigies of Fontevrault Abbey, (burying-place of the Plantagenets), and Isabella, wife of King John. These date from the 13th century, and they are not only interesting as works of art, but valuable as portraits, and as evidences of costumes of that period. An effigy of King John from Worcester, and another of Berengaria, wife of Richard I, from the Abbey of L’Espan, near Mans in France, are also to be found here.

The inlaid marble pavement of the Court is copied from churches in Florence, and is of the beginning of the 13th century.


Image

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Source: Delamotte.

North east corner of the inside of the Byzantine Court, The first doorway on the left [#9 on the plan], as we advance from the cloister arcade, is from the Church of Kilpeck, in Herefordshire, a village about eight miles from Hereford [Must be the thing under a sheet.]

#10 The large doorway which comes next is from the Cathedral of Mayence on the Rhine. [The large door to the left of the ladder.] The head in the centre of the upper arch moulding is probably intended to represent God the Father.

#11 The central arcade is formed by a compartment of the cloisters of St. John Lateran, at Rome. [What the scaffolding is against.]


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Same corner from the Nave.

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#14-15 "The next door, on the return side is also from Shobden, the interior being formed by the remaining side door, and the exterior by the chancel or triumphal arch of the same church."

The head of the arch is filled in with a circular, or what was meant for a circular aureole, within which is a very rough figure of Christ seated, beardless, long-haired, with a small plain nimbus encircling his head; four angels of vast muscular capabilities support the upper and under ring of the aureole.


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My dreadful photo of the actual cast, salvaged after the fire of 1936, and now in the cast court at the V&A, London.

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East Facade of Byzantine Court - Irish Vestibule [see plan]

The eggcup on the left is #25 the Norman Font from St Mary Magdalene, Eardisley, Herefordshire.

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Source: The Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland. http://www.crsbi.ac.uk/

The central doorway, looking towards the gardens, is from the Church of Freshford, or Achadh Ur, County Kilkenny. The circular window above this is from the Church of Rathain, in Ireland; one of the most remarkable, and probably the most ancient, existing in the British Isles.


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Garden Gallery. Source: Delamotte ca. 1859

#22 Winchester Font in foreground.

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The painted ceiling of the adjoining compartment, in the centre of which stands the Winchester font, is from the upper church of the Convent of St. Francis, at Assisi, by Cimabue. (1240-1300.)


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FIRE OF DECEMBER 1866

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East/garden facade, vaulting of basement level below, still visible in places today. Stereoview from after fire of 1866. Source Reunion des Musees Nationaux http://www.rmn.fr

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West facade from the nave. Stereoview from after fire of 1866. Source Reunion des Musees Nationaux http://www.rmn.fr
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Postby Falkor » 5 Dec 2007 19:43

All the dots are either columns, busts of statues.I have shaded all those parts covered by the floor above, using the plan of that floor from the Guildhall Library and in the back of Patrick Beaver's book on the Crystal Palace.

The German and English Sculpture Court top left, the Greeek and Roman Sculpture court on the right etc, etc.

The French and German Sculpture Court became the Concert Room, and the Court of Christian Monuments [Gothic and Renaissance] was to become the Theatre.

Excellent! Thanks for the clarification. I still don't understand why there's only one view of that theatre, a painting I saw in the Piggott book. I thought it would have been photographed.

Anyway, I better not go off-topic again, in case you got more stuff to add inside this forum guide to the palace. At the end I can always edit out all my posts, so as to improve the flow of yours and make it fit together as one long guide. Some nice views in your latest post BTW; a couple I not seen before...
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Postby tulse hill terry » 7 Dec 2007 01:40

GERMAN MEDIAEVAL VESTIBULE

These vestibules, which alternated with the main architectural courts, were a third the size. 2x 3 units square of the Paxton units of 3x 8ft units. If youre into Numerology, you'd have a field day with the Palace and the terraces. To visualise them, a 24 feet square unit is the same size and the little, in relation, "balconies?" on the upper terrace.

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1. Virgin from the Frauen Kirche, Nuremburg.
2. Munich Bishop
3. Peter Von Aspett.
4. Siegfried von Epstein
5. St. George & the Dragon from the Dom Platz, Prague.
6. Rose Wreath from Nuremburg.
7. Coronation of the Virgin from Erfum?
8. Albert of Saxony.
9. Monument of Urich von Gemmingen.
10. Ardene Tomb.
11. Pier from Litchfield Chapter House.
12. Seated king from Lincoln.
15. St. George from Westminster.
14. Pier from Winchester Chapter House.


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From the sublime to the ridiculous!

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1. Virgin from the Frauen Kirche, Nuremburg. [Just visible.]
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Postby tulse hill terry » 7 Dec 2007 01:59

ENGLISH MEDIAEVAL COURT

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Watercolour of the facade of the Mediaeval Court, Crystal Palace by the architect Mathew Digby Wyatt. Source V&A

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West Facade - from the Nave.

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West Facade - from the Nave.

Casts

LEFT - North

William Longspee
1153 - 1225
Salisbury Cathedral

Henry III
1207 - 1272
Westminster Abbey

Figure from Wells Cathedral

Bishop William Kilkenny
- 1256
Ely Cathedral

RIGHT - South

Bishop Poore
- 1237
Salisbury Cathedral

Philippa Hainault [wife of Edward III
1314 – 1369
Westminster Abbey

Figure from Wells Cathedral

Hugh de Northwald
1229 - 1254
Ely Cathedral

The central entrance of the Mediaeval court towards the nave, is formed by the doorway of the west front of tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire, a beautiful example of the Decorated style of Pointed architecture, which flourished from the close of the thirteenth to the close of the fourteenth century.

The rest of the facade is from Guisborough Abbey, Yorkshire; also in the Decorated style.

On each side of the tintern entrance are two statues, those on the left are from the west front of Wells Cathedral, those on the right were lately discovered by Mr. G. G. Scott, at Westminster Abbey.
-General Guide


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DELAMOTTE 1859

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Passing under the Tintern arch, we enter the cloister, the interior arches of which are also from Guisborough Abbey.

We are in a cloister of the Decorated period, founded in its arches and columns on the Abbey of Guisborough, Yorkshire. Looking through the cloister, to the left we see before us a doorway from the Chapel of Prince Arthur, son of Henry VII., in Worcester Cathedral, will enable us to test in a measure the truth of our own summary of the Perpendicular style.


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On the extreme right we see the door of Bishop West's Chapel, from Ely, a capital example of the Later Perpendicular style, as it begins to feel the influence of the coming Renaissance period.


Crossing the cloister, we enter the Mediaeval Court, wgich contains architectural specimens taken from our ancient churches and magnificent cathedrals.


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West wall of the Mediaeval Court, showing the cloister.

In the centre is the very richly-decorated font, from Walsingham, in Norfolk, an excellent example of the Perpendicular style.

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Hours of fun identifying casts!
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North east corner.

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Rochester Chapter House door, centre of east wall.

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East Wall plan - from Handbook


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South east corner

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South wall plan from handbook

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Looking through Lincoln door,in South wall, though to the French and Italian Mediaeval vestibule, Renaissance Court, and beyond.Delamotte, reprinted in 1911 Auction Catalogue.

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Southwest corner.

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GARDEN GALLERY

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Delamotte ca. 1859

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Hand book

Passing beneath the Rochester door way we enter a vaulted and groined vestibule, the window of which is a beautiful example of the decorated style, from Holbeach, in Lincolnshire, filled in with rich stained glass.



The walls of the gallery are lined with statues and monuments; those on the Garden side are all English, principally from the façade of Wells Cathedral; those on the side of the Court are chiefly from Germany and France. Amongst the latter, we draw particular attention to the bas-reliefs on the walls, from Notre-Dame, Paris, as excellent examples of early French Gothic.

Amongst the central monuments should be particularly remarked the Arderne tomb, from Elford [St Peter’s] church, Staffordshire; the monument of Henry IV., and Joan of Navarre (his queen), from Canterbury Cathedral; the tomb of Sir Giles Daubney, from Westminster Abbey, of about the year 1507; and the splendid monument of Richard Beauchamp’ Earl of Warwick, from Warwick, one of the finest Gothic sepulchral monuments remaining in England.

Passing beneath the arcade, near the Beauchamp monument, we enter the French and Italian Mediaeval Court.





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A bit of human interest, Ladies showing each other their cats.

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What she needs is a nip of brandy!
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Postby tulse hill terry » 7 Dec 2007 02:15

FRENCH AND ITALIAN MEDIAEVAL VESTIBULE

On the walls of which, on the ground row, are ranged a series of arches from the choir of Notre-Dame, at Paris, the greater number of the canopies which surmount them being taken from the Cathedral of Chartres, both fine examples of early French Gothic art. The very excellent statues, bosses, &c, are from various French churches. The central statue on the floor is by the great Italian sculptor, Giovanni Pisano (13th century), and stands on a pedestal from the celebrated altar-piece of Or San Michele, at Florence, by Andrea Orgagna (14th century). The two statues nearest the gallery are by Nino Pisano, son of Giovanni. The very elaborate example of iron-work near the nave entrance is from one of the great west doors of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris, and evinces such consummate skill in workmanship as to have obtained for its artist, when first made public, the unenviable credit of being in close league with the Evil One,. The exact date of this iron-work is not ascertained, but it of the best period of the French Pointed style.


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1. Arcade from Notre Dame, Paris
2. Ditto
3. Ditto
4. Door from Notre Dame, Paris.
5. Arcade from Notre Dame, Paris.
6. Ditto
7. Ditto
8. Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick.
9. Winchester Pier.
10. Pocklington Cross on Winchester Pannelling. [sic]
11. Shoemaker & Monkey on Capital, Wells cathedral/
12. Cap Bishop Cannings,Monument.
13. Figure of Justice by Giovanni Pisano, from Pisa, on pedestal formed of the Altar of Or-San-Michele by Orcagna and Bas-reliefs from Rouen.


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Looking west into the nave. Source: Delamotte

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This time in 3D, have you tried the crossing your eyes trick yet?

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Looking east into the vestibule. Source : Delamotte Ca. 1859

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A bit further back this time.

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Looking rather forlorn, without statues of planting. Ca. 1920's. Source Arthur Talbot.

Once more regaining the Nave, we proceed on our journey southward, until a few steps bring us to The Renaissance Court.
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Postby tulse hill terry » 7 Dec 2007 02:18

THE RENAISSANCE COURT.

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Facade from the nave. Source: Delamotte Ca 1859 - English Heritage

The façade before us is a restored copy of a portion of the Hotel Bourgtheroulde, at Rouen. It was built at the end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries. The bas-relief before us represents the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and the memorable meeting (in 1520) of Francis I. of France and our own Henry VIII.


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http://translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%25C3%25B4tel_de_Bourgtheroulde&ei=pujOTY2WNImW8QPMvejnDQ&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ7gEwAw&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dhotel%2Bbourgtheroulde%2Brouen%2Bwikipedia%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Doff%26biw%3D1600%26bih%3D737%26prmd%3Divns

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The frieze above is from the Hospital of the Poor, at Pistoia, in Tuscany, and shows monks or priests relieving the poor; the original is in coloured porcelain.


INSIDE

Entering the Court, we find in the lunettes under the ceiling of the small loggia, or gallery, portraits of twelve of the most celebrated persons of Italy, Spain, France, and Germany, of the Rennaissance period, including in the central compartment Francis I., of France, and Catherine de’ Medici. In the compartment to the right are, Lorenzo de’ Medici and Lucrezia Borgia; and, in that to the left, Mary of Burgundy and Maximillian of Germany.


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FOUNTAIN

In the centre of the Court we find a fountain of the Renaissance period, from the Chateau de Gaillon, in France; and on either side of the fountain are two bronze wells, from the Ducal Palace at Venice. The one to the north surmounted by a statue from the goose market at Nuremburg, that to the south by the figure of a cupid, with a dolphin, from Florence.


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This fountain has been admirably burnt in terracotta by Mr. John Marriott Blashfield (1811–1882). The little bronze figure surmounting the fountain has been taken from the Stanzi di bronzi in the gallery of the Uffizi in Florence.

- Handbook to the Renaissance Court


"At the center of the court at Chateau de Gaillon once stood the finest fountain in France, which received its own plate in Jacques Androuet du Cerceau's Les Plus Excellents Bastiments de France. The fountain was commissioned 14 September 1506 from the Genoese sculptors Agostino Solari, Antonio della Porta and Pace Gazini, as a gift from the Republic of Venice to Cardinal d'Amboise, for having evicted the Sforza from Milan.

It was twenty-two feet high, surmounted by a sculpture of John the Baptist, whose presence was a reminder of such fountains' origins in baptismal fonts, above stacked vase-forms with lactating Graces and urinating boys by Bertrand de Meynal and Jérôme Pacherot. Masks spat water from two superposed basins above an octagonal tank with heraldic and emblemmatic bas-reliefs. At the time it was built the fountain at Gaillon perhaps had no equal in Italy, unless it was inspired by a feature in the gardens of Poggio Reale, laid out for Alfonso II of Naples.

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The lower octagonal Carrara marble basin was removed from Gaillon when the fountain was disassembled by the Cardinal de la Rochefoucauld in 1754 and set up in the gardens at Liancourt (Oise). [Not present in the Crystal Palace cast.] In 1911 the fountain itself was removed to the Château de la Rochefoucauld, where it may be seen today on the upper terrace.
source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%C3%A2teau_de_Gaillon"

Bronze Statues

The two large bronze statues which stand near the fountain have been taken from a series which surround the tomb of the Emperor Maximillian I at the Hofkirche, Innsbruck.
- - Handbook to the Renaissance Court


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WEST WALL


Directing our steps to the right, we may first examine the decoration on the lower part of the interior of the façade, the bas-reliefs of which is taken from the high altar at Granada Cathedral, in Spain.

The statue in the centre is that of the wife of Louis de Poncher, the original of which is now in the Louvre; its date may be assigned to the early portion of the 16th century. The altar on which the statue is placed is from Certosa near Pavia, in Northern Italy.



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Delamotte 1854

SOUTH WALL


The first object on the [south] side wall is a door, by Jean Goujon (a French sculptor who executed many works at the Louvre), from the church of Saint Maclou, at Rouen; then a doorway from the Doria Palace at Genoa, a fine specimen of the cinque-cento.


Above this are five bas-reliefs from the museum at Florence, representing Faith, Prayer, Wisdom, Justice, and Charity.


Beyond it, one of the most beautiful objects in the Palace, a copy of the far-famed gates from the baptistery at Florence, executed by Lorenzo Ghilberti, who was occupied upon his work for the space of twenty-one years.One glance is sufficient to assure the spectator that sculpture had indeed advanced to an extraordinary degree of excellence at the period which we have now reached. The visitor having sufficiently admired these “Gates of Paradise,” as Michelangelo termed them, will proceed on his way, passing another doorway, which, like that on the other side, already seen, is from Genoa.


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Close to it, is a door by Goujon, corresponding to the door in the opposite corner.


EAST WALL

On the back [east] wall we first notice a composition made up from various examples of cinque-cento work. Adjoining it is a portion of an altar from Certosa, near Pavia, -- a beautiful specimen of sculptural art of the time. Next to this is another piece of cinque-cento composition, from specimens at the same Certosa, from [Milan ?] Cathedral and other places.


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From the piscina on the side of the high altar at the Certosa, Pavia.

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South east corner of the Renaissance Court interior. Negretti & Zambra stereoview.

In the centre [of the east wall], two Colossal figures (Caryatides), from the Louvre, by Jean Goujon, support a large cast of the Nymph of Fontainebleau, by the celebrated Benvenuto Cellini.


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Delamotte 1854

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Certosa_di_Pavia

Next to the Caryatides we see an exquisite specimen of a portion of the interior of the principal entrance to the Certosa most elaborately carved, and the panels filled in with bas-reliefs; the doorway by its side is from the Hotel de Ville, of Oudenarde, in Belgium. It stands out from the wall and looks very like an antique cabinet or screen.

Another architectural example from the Certosa follows, being a sort of military monument erected to the memory of G. G. Visconti, Duke of Milan, the date of its execution is the end of the 15th century.


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Delamotte 1854 - Swansea

NORTH WALL

On the [north] side next the French Mediaeval Court is first another oak door from Saint Maclou by Jean Goujon and then a doorway, from Genoa;


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Above it, the frieze of “The Singers,” by Luca della Robbia, the original of which is at Florence, a most charming work, full of life and animation.


In the centre of this - the northern side of the court is a cast from one of the windows of the façade of the Certosa, a remarkably fine example of the cinque cento;

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Delamotte 1854 - during construction of the court.

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next to it, another doorway, from the Doria Palace at Genoa; and in the corner a fourth door from Saint Maclou, by Goujon, the central bas-relief of which represents the baptism of Christ.


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Two statues by Donatello cannot fail to be noticed – his Saint John in marble, and David in bronze, both of which display great power and study of nature.


GARDEN GALLERY.

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Delamotte 1859 - English Heritage

We now pass out through the doorway under the Nymph of Fontainbleau, and enter a vestibule in the Renaissance style.

Here on the ceiling, is a copy of a painting from the Sala del Cambio (Exchange) at Perugia, in Italy by Perugino, the master of Raffaelle, who assisted Perugino in the work. The painting represents the Seven Planets, with Apollo in the centre, as the personification of the Sun.

The wall of the Renaissance Court to the left of the entrance is decorated with terra-cotta arches, and a frieze from the Certosa; the singing boys in the frieze are of great merit.

On either side of the doorway are parts of Goujon’s doors from St. Maclou, at Rouen.

In the centre of the gallery are placed Germain Pilon’s “Graces,” now in the Louvre, a charming example of the French school of sculpture.

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The four angles under the Perugia ceiling are occupied by four statues, also by Pilon.




The kneeling effigies in the gallery are from the Hertford monument in Salisbury Cathedral, probably erected in the first half of the 17th century.


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Dagguerrotype.

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On the back wall, to the right of the doorway, are richly ornamented arches in terra-cotta, from the large cloisters of the Certosa, and also bas-reliefs and specimens of the Renaiissance style from various parts of Italy.


After examining these objects, we turn into the narrow court adjoining the Renaissance Court, and find ourselves in The Elizabethan Vestibule.


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Nelsons

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The basement of this area during one of the recent LDA "excavations."
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Postby tulse hill terry » 7 Dec 2007 02:20

THE ELIZABETHAN VESTIBULE.

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Day & Son Portfolio.

The architectural details in this Court are taken from Holland House, at Kensington, a fine old mansion made interesting to us by many associations.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holland_House,_London

Holland House was heavily bombed in the war.

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This court contains several tombs of the period.

The first is that of Sir John Cheney, from Salisbury Cathedral: a soldier who distinguished himself in the wars of the Roses, and was attached to the party of Henry VII. The original effigy is in alabaster, a material much used during the early part of the 16th century.


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The next monument is that of Mary Queen of Scots from Westminster Abbey, executed in the beginning of the 17th century, and displaying in its treatment all the characteristics of the Elizabethan style.


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The succeeding monument is that of Queen Elizabeth, also from Westminster, constructed at about the same period at that of Queen Mary; the original effigy is of white marble.


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The last monument is that of Margaret [Beaufort], Countess of Richmond and Derby (the mother of Henry VII.), at Westminster. It is the work of the Florentine sculptor Torrigano; the original is in copper, and its date the early part of the 16th century; it is of unusual merit.


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Source: History of Science Oxford

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Elizabethan Vestibule from the Nave. Delamotte 1859

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On the right is placed the fine bronze statue of Albert, Archduke of Bavaria, from the monument of Louis / Ludwig IV of Bavaria (1282-1347), erected by the Emperor Maximilian, A.D., 1622, in the cathedral at Munich. A remarkably fine piece of sculpture, ascribed to Hans Kreutzner [Hans Krumpper]. The costume of the period in which the Archduke lived is faithfully rendered, and is of the richest character; his loose coat or mantle is puffed and slashed, turned up with fur, probably sable, and is furnished with sleeves that hang down at the elbow, leaving the arms free; the wrists have small ruffs or frills; he holds his richly worked gloves in his right hand and his sword in his left hand; his doublet and mantle are both covered with excellent ornament in the Renaissance style. Handbook


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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Krumpper

Advancing a few paces, the visitor reaches the Nave, and turning still southward, finds himself before The Italian Court.
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